Compostable and biodegradable bags - Cello Bags

Compostable Bags vs. Biodegradable Bags: Which is Better?


Although “compostable” and “biodegradable” may seem similar, they differ. Today’s world, where environmental awareness is growing, places a premium on finding eco-friendly alternatives for single-use plastic.

Understanding the differences between compostable and biodegradable bags is essential as consumers and companies work to make more sustainable decisions. These two seemingly synonymous concepts denote several strategies for lessening our ecological impact.

In This Article

What Are Compostable Bags?

Eco-friendly packaging, known as compostable bags, is made to decompose into organic matter under specified circumstances while leaving no toxic residues behind. Compostable bags go through a natural process that turns them into nutrient-rich compost, which may be used to enrich the soil and stimulate plant development, as opposed to conventional plastic bags, which can take hundreds of years to disintegrate.

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Materials Used:

Most compostable bags comprise renewable, plant-based materials that can decompose naturally. Compostable bags are frequently made from a variety of materials, including:

  • Cornstarch (Maize): The most popular ingredient for making biodegradable bags is cornstarch. It is made from grain, a resource that can be renewed. The capacity of bags made of cornstarch to decompose into compost under the correct circumstances is well documented.
  • Potato Starch: Potato starch is another plant-based ingredient utilized to manufacture biodegradable bags, much like cornstarch. Potato starch bags are an environmentally friendly substitute for conventional plastics and have similar biodegradable qualities.
  • Sugarcane: Given how widely available sugarcane is as a crop, sugarcane-based biodegradable bags are becoming increasingly common. The fibrous waste of sugarcane processing, known as sugarcane bagasse, may be utilized to make strong, biodegradable bags.
  • Cassava: Tapioca, commonly called cassava, is a root crop used to make biodegradable bags. It is frequently grown in tropical areas and is biodegradable under the appropriate circumstances.
  • Algae: Some businesses are looking into using materials made from algae to make biodegradable bags. Algae has the potential to be a sustainable resource for many different items, including packaging, and it grows quickly.
  • Other Plant-Based Materials: Compostable bags have also been made from various plant-derived materials, including wheat, rice, and bamboo, with distinct environmental advantages.



Microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, and other composting organisms break down compostable bags into their natural parts. Compared to traditional plastic, this process happens rapidly, often taking a few months and a year, depending on environmental factors.

Environmentally Friendly Materials

Typically, these bags are created using renewable resources like cornstarch, sugarcane, potato, or other plant-based substances. Some biodegradable bags, such as vegetable oils, could also include extra organic materials that speed up the breakdown process.

No Toxic Residue

Compostable bags do not release dangerous pollutants or microplastics into the environment when they break down. Instead, they help to produce nutrient-rich compost that enhances the quality of the soil.

Ideal Conditions for Decomposition

For compostable bags to decompose properly, certain circumstances must exist. These circumstances frequently include exposure to oxygen, moisture, and an appropriate temperature range, such as in commercial composting facilities or backyard compost piles.

Compatible Composting

]Compostable bags must be used in organic waste facilities to ensure effective decomposition. Composting at home is another choice, although it may take longer and requires particular instructions.


What Are Biodegradable Bags?

According to Wikipedia, biodegradable bags are another environmentally friendly packaging that degrades naturally over time into smaller pieces. Unlike regular plastic bags, which can remain in the environment for decades, biodegradable bags are designed to decompose naturally, lessening their impact on the ecosystem.

Something is biodegradable when living creatures like fungi or bacteria can break it down. Biodegradable bags are made from plant-based materials like maize and wheat starch rather than petroleum. However, several requirements must be satisfied for this plastic to decompose.

Materials Used:

Biodegradable bags may be created from a variety of materials, both natural and artificial. The materials used to manufacture biodegradable bags influence their biodegradability and overall environmental impact. Biodegradable bags are commonly made from the following materials:

Polylactic Acid (PLA):

PLA is a compostable and biodegradable polymer from renewable resources such as cornstarch or sugarcane. Because of its propensity to degrade into lactic acid under particular conditions, it has gained favor as a replacement for standard plastics.

Polybutylene Adipate Terephthalate (PBAT):

PBAT is a biodegradable synthetic polymer frequently mixed with PLA to enhance flexibility and durability. It degrades microbial activity and is often used in biodegradable bags.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)

PHA is a naturally occurring bioplastic composed of a group of biodegradable polymers generated by microorganisms. PHA may be produced from plants and is utilized in various biodegradable goods, such as bags and packaging.

Starch Blends

Starch blends can be used to make biodegradable bags, which combine starch from maize, potatoes, or other sources with other biodegradable polymers. These mixes are biodegradable and are frequently used for single-use bags.

Biodegradable Plastics

Some biodegradable bags are constructed of petroleum-based polymers engineered to degrade faster. While they are not as eco-friendly as plant-based alternatives, they can nonetheless help to lessen the environmental effect of typical plastics.

Aliphatic Polyesters

These biodegradable polymers are made from renewable resources such as maize or sugarcane. They are intended to degrade the environment into non-toxic components.

PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol)

PVA is a water-soluble and biodegradable synthetic polymer. It is frequently utilized when the bag must dissolve fast, such as in laundry or wet waste garbage bags.


An example of a biodegradable material used for bags is cellophane. Cellulose, a naturally occurring polymer found in plants, is the source of cellophane, frequently manufactured from wood pulp or cotton fibers. It can degrade gradually through microbial activity and other natural processes without producing any negative byproducts.



Microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria break down biodegradable bags into smaller bits over time. The biodegradation process aids in returning these bags to nature. However, the rate and amount of disintegration might vary depending on the individual material used and the climatic circumstances.

Renewable Resources

Biodegradable bags are frequently created from renewable resources, such as plant-based polymers or plastics. These materials offer a more environmentally friendly alternative to traditional petroleum-based polymers.

Reduced Environmental Impact

Compared to conventional plastics, biodegradable bags are less likely to linger in the environment and damage wildlife since they disintegrate into tiny bits. Not all biodegradable polymers, however, completely disintegrate; some may leave behind microplastics that may still provide environmental hazards.

Biodegradation Conditions

For successful decomposition, biodegradable bags require particular environmental conditions. These prerequisites frequently exist in soil, lake bodies, or other natural settings and typically include exposure to oxygen, moisture, and a sufficient temperature range.

Varied Degradation Rate

The rates of biodegradation of the various polymers utilized in biodegradable bags vary. Depending on variables like material composition and ambient circumstances, some may degrade rapidly while others may take longer.

It’s crucial to understand that not all biodegradable bags fully decompose or work with all disposal techniques. Some may require commercial composting facilities or waste management techniques for effective biodegradation.

Biodegradable packaging for food- Cello Bags

Compostable Bags vs Biodegradable Bags: The Comparison

Compostable and biodegradable bags have come to light as promising solutions in the search for more environmentally responsible and sustainable alternatives to conventional plastic bags. Although they have the same goal of lessening the environmental harm caused by single-use packaging, they differ in terms of their make-up, rate of biodegradation, and overall environmental advantages.

Definition and Purpose

Compostable Bags: 

Compostable bags are made to decompose into nutrient-rich compost, enhancing the soil and promoting plant development. Usually, they are created from naturally occurring, renewable plant-based substances like cornstarch or potato starch.

Biodegradable Bags:

On the other hand, biodegradable bags are designed to break down into tiny pieces over time through natural processes. They can be created from several materials, such as polymers that can be broken down quickly or biodegradable compounds generated from plants.

Biodegradation Process:

Compostable Bags:

Compostable bags need conditions to degrade properly, often present in commercial composting operations or well-maintained household compost piles. They decompose into organic stuff under these circumstances between a few months to a year.

Biodegradable Bags:

Through microbial activity, biodegradable bags also decompose. However, they may only become compost. The material utilized and environmental conditions might affect the pace and degree of biodegradation.

Environmental Impact

Compostable Bags:

Compostable bags have a more focused environmental impact as they help produce nutrient-rich compost, improving soil fertility and lessening the need for chemical fertilizers.

Biodegradable Bags:

Biodegradable bags can prevent animal harm and the persistence of plastic trash in the environment. However, they could still leave behind microplastics if the biodegradation process is sluggish or unsuccessful, which might lead to environmental issues.


Compostable Bags:

Plant-based substances like cornstarch, sugarcane, or potato starch make compostable bags. These materials have a less carbon footprint and are renewable.

Biodegradable Bags:

A larger range of materials, including synthetic biodegradable plastics, plant-based polymers like PLA, and other components, can be used to create biodegradable bags.


Compostable Bags:

Compostable bags should be disposed of properly by either shipping them to commercial composting facilities or following particular instructions for home composting.

Biodegradable Bags:

Biodegradable bags can break down in a variety of settings. However, they might break down more quickly in commercial composting operations or under-regulated waste management.

Which is Better, Then?

My thoughts: both compostable and biodegradable bags offer advantages. Still, the optimal option depends on your unique needs and priorities.

Compostable bags will help to encourage composting and nourish the soil. They are constructed of renewable plant-based ingredients and decompose into nutrient-rich compost, making them ideal for gardening and agriculture. However, remember that they require professional composting facilities or home composting systems to accomplish their magic.

Biodegradable bags are versatile and can break down in various environments, making them suitable for waste management in diverse settings. They can be made from a wide range of materials, offering more options for manufacturers and consumers. However, the term “biodegradable” is not as strictly regulated as “compostable,” which can lead to confusion and potential greenwashing. Certification is still crucial to ensure the bags meet biodegradation standards.

Understand your local trash management options before making a decision. Is there a composting facility nearby? Can biodegradable bags be disposed of in an ecologically responsible manner?

Consider your personal beliefs and what is important to you in protecting the environment. Whether you choose compostable, biodegradable, or reusable bags, your dedication to decreasing plastic waste counts.

Frequently Asked Questions

They are not the same thing. While both bags are environmentally beneficial, compostable bags are meant to degrade into nutrient-rich compost that benefits the soil. In contrast, due to natural processes, biodegradable bags degrade into smaller pieces over time.

Organic trash, such as food scraps and yard trimmings, is best suited for compostable bags. They are not advised for non-organic or recyclable garbage disposal.

It is determined by the substance used in the biodegradable bags. Some biodegradable bags may be composted at home, while others may need industrial composting facilities or regulated waste management.

The strength and durability of compostable and biodegradable bags vary. While others are made for heavier use, some could be appropriate for light-duty duties. Verify the bag’s intended use and load capacity on the label.

Key Takeaways

Eco-friendly substitutes for conventional plastic bags are available in compostable and biodegradable bags. Compostable bags are created to decompose into nutrient-rich compost that is good for the soil and encourages plant development. They are perfect for waste streams from well-maintained residential compost piles or commercial composting facilities.

On the other hand, biodegradable bags have a reduced environmental impact since they decompose into tiny pieces over time through natural processes. They are more adaptable and have a wider range of decomposition environments, making them appropriate for diverse waste management scenarios.